Radiology and radiotherapy – the discipline, which contains systematized scientific knowledge and methods of radiology and radiotherapy in clinical medicine.
In our days radiology and radiotherapy are the different divisions of medicine. Radiology allow to detect pathogenesis and another important characteristics of pathological processes, and fix it as objective documentation. Radiotherapy is one of the main methods with surgery and chemotherapy of treatment in oncological practice.
Study of the subject “Radiology and radiotherapy” is based on the previous knowledge of normal and pathological anatomy, physiology, biophysics, biology, histology, chemistry, radiation medicine.
Knowledge and skills obtained in the discipline, supplemented by subsequent courses of internal medicine, surgery, oncology, neurology, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology.
Purpose: formation of the student’s knowledge and skills for the integrated use of modern methods of radiation imaging with the recognition of the most common diseases in clinical practice and radiation therapy in the treatment of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases.
The tasks of the discipline is to acquire the student’s academic competence, which was based on the ability to self-search training and information resources, mastery and understanding of the methods of acquiring knowledge:
- organic-integrated use in clinical medicine ray imaging methods for detecting disease in different age groups.
Task of teaching the subject aimed at developing the students' social and personal and professional competence, subject to the rules of medical ethics and deontology, the foundation of which is to know:
- pathological changes in the organs and systems of rights and the relationship of the complex syndrome with a specific disease;
- strategies for radiation therapy of malignant tumors and benign diseases.
Requirements for the mastering the discipline
Student should know:
- the system of protection of radioprotective and safety in diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radiation;
- biophysical properties, radiosensitivity and radioresistance tissues and organs;
- the types of electromagnetic, ultrasonic, and corpuscular radiation used in X-ray diagnostics;
- basic and special imaging techniques in X-ray diagnostics, the system of generation and transmission of digital images;
- the basis of organic and integrated use of modern visualization methods and radiation therapy;
Student should be able:
- explain the result of radiation research at the most common diseases of the lungs, heart, esophagus, stomach, intestine, gall bladder, kidneys, endocrine system, bones and joints.
Study of the subject "Radiological and Ecological medicine" is held on the 2d year (3d and 4th semester). Classroom hours - 66, including lectures – 20
Study of the subject "Radiology and Radiation Therapy" is held on the 3rd year (5th and 6th semester). Classroom hours - 56, including lectures – 20
Radiation and environmental medicine is an academic discipline that contains systematized scientific knowledge and methods on all aspects of the impact of the environment on public health.
The academic discipline consists of two sections, reflecting the importance of influencing factors and taking into account the increasing load on a person.
Section 1. "Ecological medicine" includes materials corresponding to the existing model of medicine and covering all aspects of the formation of responses of the human body to the acting physicochemical and biological loads. This section examines the features of the formation of ecologically caused diseases and the approach to diagnosis and treatment of patients, taking into account the impact of the main environmental pollutants, methods of preventing possible adverse effects, increasing physicochemical and biological loads.
Section 2. "Radiation Medicine" includes materials that allow students to study the mechanisms of damage formation under the action of ionizing radiation and possible options for reducing the adverse effects of this exposure, methods of reducing radiation exposure due to sources used in medicine, and radionuclides dispersed in the environment as a result of human activities.
The discipline takes into account the peculiarities of the radioecological situation in the Republic of Belarus, including the need to reduce the radiochemical load on the population. Integration of individual sections of the program into a single whole is achieved by the development of ideas about the universality of the body's responses and adaptation mechanisms, which is characteristic of the molecular-genetic, cellular and organismic levels of organization of living things.
The purpose and objectives of teaching and learning the discipline
Purpose: formation of students and their acquisition of scientific knowledge about the pathogenetic mechanisms of formation and the risks of development of radiation and ecologically caused diseases, methods of individual and population prevention of diseases and pathological conditions caused by chronic low dose physicochemical and biological effects.
The tasks of studying the discipline are to acquire academic competence by students, the basis of which is the ability to independent search for educational and information resources and meaningful use of knowledge:
- basic concepts of radiation and environmental medicine, methods of identifying the relationship between the morbidity of the population and the state of the environment;
- radioecological situation in the Republic of Belarus;
- features of the behavior of radionuclides in various ecosystems;
- features of the formation of radiation injuries in humans;
- medico-biological consequences of the action of ionizing radiation and the principles of reducing the radiation impact on the population;
- methods of prevention and correction of possible consequences of radiation exposure on the population;
- environmental factors that cause the development of environmental diseases;
- features of the action of non-ionizing and ionizing radiation on the human body;
- methods of preventing the effects of exposure to xenobiotics in persons living in conditions of chronic low dose physical and chemical stress;
- radiation and environmental risks in the work of a doctor.
Teaching and successful learning of the discipline "Radiation and Environmental Medicine" is carried out on the basis of the acquired knowledge and skills of students in sections following disciplines: medical and biological physics, bioorganic chemistry and biochemistry.
The study of the educational discipline "Radiation and Environmental Medicine" should ensure the formation of students' academic, social, personal and professional competencies.
Requirements for the mastering the discipline
Student should know:
- - mechanisms of influence of natural and anthropogenic environmental factors on human health;
- - principles of the formation of radiation loads on the population due to the impact of natural and man-made sources of ionizing radiation and their reduction;
- - measures of protection of the population in radiation accidents;
- - principles of forming a healthy lifestyle and rational behavior in the current radiation and environmental conditions;
Student should be able to:
- evaluate dose loads on different categories of exposed persons under 7 conditions of normal operation of sources of ionizing radiation and in the event of a radiation accident;
Student should master:
- - methodology for assessing health risks under the influence of environmental factors;
- - methods of reducing dose loads on the population exposed to radiation;
- - methodology for choosing the scope of treatment and prevention measures in the event of radiation exposure to different categories of the population;
- - methods of carrying out activities to promote a healthy lifestyle and rational behavior in the current radiation and environmental conditions.