The first Head of the Department was Professor G.Y. Liberson (1903-1965) – a world-known scientist who contributed a lot to our conception of morphology changes in vascular pathology of the brain. Z.V. Zimina, V.R. Kalkun were elected as assistant lecturers at that time. E. I. Svito taught Neurosurgery.

In 1965 Professor E.L. Belman was elected as the Head of the Department till 1977. His scientific interests included different aspects of syringomyelia. Apart from that, methods of surgical treatment of lumbosacral radiculitis were developed.

The Department was headed by Professor A.M. Matesha from 1977 to 1997. Guidelines on treatment and preventing neurological disorders were developed under his leadership. At the same time a scientific direction dedicated to multiple sclerosis was developed (Y.Y. Gordeev). In 1980 Neurosurgery course was headed by A.V. Pershukevich who developed a new method of cranioplasty which gained a high recognition in neurosurgical departments of the Republic of Belarus.

The Faculty of Mental Health Medicine was established, and necessity of teaching such disciplines as neuropsychology, defectology and logopedics demanded establishing of the second department of neurology which was organized in Grodno Municipal Clinical Hospital No. 1 in 1995 (the head of the Department was Professor Y.Y. Gordeev). Department Staff carried out huge organizational and methodical work on new disciplines – defectology and logopedics (T.M.  Shamova) and neuropsychology (S.D. Kulesh). Apart from educational process demielinization and neurovascular diseases were explored. In 1997 two departments were united. Since 2005 the Department is headed by Professor S.D. Kulesh.