The Department was established on May 5, 1959. The first Head of the Department was Prof. Nikolay Ivanovich Arinchin (1914-1999). Research area was investigation of the Cardiovascular System Physiology. In 1962 Biophysics of Hemodynamics Laboratory was founded by N. I. Arinchin. In 1984 an interdepartmental Laboratory for investigating gas transport blood function was established by M. V. Borisyuk. Since 1969 to 1998 the Department was headed by I. K. Zhmakin. Since 1998 to 2009 and since October 2014 to date the Head of the Department is Prof. V. V. Zinchuk (Vice-rector for scientific work in 2009-2014). Under the leadership of V.V. Zinchuk the functioning of the oxygen transport system and the role of gaseous transmitters in the development of oxidative damage is studied, as well as molecular-genetic markers which ensure oxygen-dependent body processes.